Bakhchisarai, the Uspensky monastery, Chufut-kale
The Narrow valley of small river of the Churuk-sou is twisted between light grey breakages of steep rocks, places forming powerful freakish sculptures. In rather wide part of a valley constructions of the Hansky palace, and above – medieval Muslim medrese (school), an operating cave orthodox Uspensky monastery and still above – capital karaimov (faiths of Jews) Chufut-kale settle down. Half-thousand years of three great religions co-exist nearby in quiet harmony which as if dictates planing, but the generous and friendly nature.
On an exit of a valley of small small river of the Churuk-sou in wide mezhgrjadovoe fall between the Internal and External ridge of the Crimean Foothills (here it is laid highway Simferopol – Sevastopol) since ancient times is the important crossing of roads. And having visited here in the spring, especially, in the spring restless for farmers – with returns of colds and frosts, you are convinced that they do not disturb this city. Spring here the most tender, fragrant and elegant in Crimea and, probably, in all Eastern Europe.
Turkic tribes, have based Eski-yurtas (old selishche) in XIII century, in Golden Horde, and the Crimean khanate which has separated from it, has been based between 1427 and 1449 the Hadzhi-geraj-khan. Till 1475 it was independent, and after capture by Turkish armies of mountain Crimea became the vassal of Ottoman empire.
On privokzalnoj the areas (she and the old market just are on a place the Eski-yurta) expect you various kinds of motor transport. With their help it is possible to pass through all old city. Having left from the area, you approach on a fork: the right road conducts to Sevastopol. And left – in a city. Street on which you go, — unique street of an old city. And here before you object for the sake of which come to Bakhchisarai the majority of tourists, — the Khan-shed.
Bakhchisarai means – a palace in a garden ("bahche" with Persian – a garden, a garden-palace, many Persian words have got in krymskotatarsky, however, and in their Russian much: a caftan, a sundress, a drum …).
The Stone bridge conducts to a palace through Churuk-sou small river (in transfer with Tatar "churuk" — rotten, spoilt, utterly worthless, "sou" – water: on its coast there were tanning workshops which poisoned with the waste water). In front of the bridge the stone monument – Ekaterina's mile is established.
The Founder of a dynasty of Hadzhi Geraj in the middle of 15 century has transferred capital from the city of Crimea (Old Crimea) in Kyrk-Er (Chufut-kale), achieving independence of Golden Horde. The beginning to building of a palace and capital was put by his son Mengli Geraj I (1467 – 1515). It was brought up in Cafe at genoeses, having acquired both the European and Asian culture. In a military alliance with the Moscow kingdom expands influence on the north and the east from Crimea.
Khan Kyrym Geraj (1717-1769), the admirer and the expert on all French, has based style “ the Crimean rococo ”. Studying architecture of a palace Russian architects of 19 and 20 centuries, first of all P.N.Krasnov, have extended and have developed this style for country houses and hotel cases, and also mosques and public buildings of resorts.
But a palace and it “the Fountain of Tears” steels world famous only thanks to A.Pushkin who has visited in Crimea in 1820
Now it is Istoriko-architectural memorial estate. The archaeological exposition acquaints with life certificates during the most ancient epoch, since a freezing of Europe. The ethnographic collection is devoted culture, a life, crafts and national creativity of the Crimean Tatars.
The ensemble of a palace besides front doors and svitskih cases, and also a harem, includes the Falcon tower, Big hanskaja a mosque and mezarlyk, a cemetery with several big djurbe (mausoleums) and nadgrobjami khans, their wives and relatives.
The cemetery is adjoined by one of the earliest constructions of a palace — a bath of Sary-Gjuzel (usually this name translate as the red beauty, however, under the certificate of Evlija Chelebi, at boys-bathhouse attendants who here worked, was considered shchegolstvom to paint hands henna so something will be more exact like «Gold Krasavchik»). Over an input in man's branch the inscription has remained: «This bath is constructed on command of sultan Adil Sahyb-Geraja, son Mengli-Geraja in 939 year». On hidzhre-Muslim letoschisleniju it is 1532 of the European system. The bath is now restored and already looks very entertaining both reasonable on architecture and the device.
In two kilometres on the southeast from the Hansky palace, above on a current of the river of the Churuk-sou, the suburb Salachik (Fat – village,-chik – small), now Starosele settles down. Its steep breakages, many of which have characteristic sawtooth ledges, is more tremendous and repeatedly reflect a sound. They are almost always full of rock-climbers – hundreds lines of different degree of complexity here are laid.
In last Salachik was the main centre the Crimean gipsies . Here there lived handicraftsmen, bear-hunters (not in sense of safes, and trainers), garden workers and musicians.
On entrance to Starosele (the street Gasprinsky, 47) settles down the House museum Ismail-beja Gasprinsky - the great educator of the krymsko-Tatar people, the founder of its modern literary language.
Starosele is interesting to that some houses are built in directly a monolithic rock where during immemorial times niches for economic needs are beaten out. Premises for cattle are numerous. The rock all year long keeps constant temperature about +12 degrees, and under slanting beams of the winter sun to which southern breakage also perfectly gets warm is turned.
In one of grottoes the Soviet archeologists in due time (when it was necessary to outdo the western colleagues) "have found out" the most ancient burial place kromanonskogo the person in territory of the USSR – «the old rural boy» which stones were dated 50 thousand years ago. Judging by collapses so long rocks local cannot stand. But that in these valleys during a freezing of Europe escaped both people, and animals – is obvious.
On the West from village the beam with a streamlet leaves far between rocks, forming a series of the levelled green lawns. In the spring they amaze with the violent flowering, and in the autumn – an abundance of a cornel, a filbert, the run wild plums, apples and pears. These are well-known Crimean chair y – wood gardens. And the beam is called as Ashlama-dere, a word ashlama name the imparted saplings.
The beam of Marjam-dere (sacred Maria) departs From Staroselja on the south. In VIII-IX centuries here it is based orthodox the Uspensky monastery (4-19-06) though there are also other later datings.
Directly over a beam in breakage cave temples and cells of monks in some circles are cut. With the basis of the Crimean khanate in XV century the monastery becomes the main Christian centre, receives from all khans generous donations. Pilgrims lodge also on an opposite board of a beam, there are cave cells and already on approaches, in breakages at Salachika.
In 1778 the Christian population is deduced from here under escort of A.Suvorova's armies on coast of sea of Azov, Mariupol is based.
Only in a XIX-th century the monastery renews. At the time of the Crimean war here there was a hospital, the soldiers who have died of wounds are buried nearby. And then for reception of pilgrims the numerous constructions which part is blown up by members of the Komsomol in 1930th years are under construction still.
The Majestic ladder which has been cut down in a rock, is called now Hamlet Ladder as it is immortalised in this classical Soviet film.
Since 1990th years the monastery is renewed and conducts scale economic activities.
The Most visited and interesting ancient city of Crimea - Chufut-kale . Here too constantly shoot films, in 2001 the group of Hollywood worked here over fehtovalnymi scenes fentazi "Barbarian".
Between a monastery and city collars of Chufut-kale recently there was a separate excursion object - an obsidional well with hundreds metres of subways. Excavation and sensational finds (among which treasure of gold and silver Roman coins) proceeds each summer season!
Chufut-kale of veins also was at war with VI on XIX centuries, having left set of fighting and economic caves, temples and prisons, together with land constructions: gate, walls, cult constructions karaimov - kenasy.
In XIII century in a fortress lived alany — most powerful of tribes of the Iranian origin (are related to modern Ossetins). They were engaged in agriculture, animal industries and craft, traded with the next and distant countries. On the fertile earths of nearby valleys grew up fruit and grapes.
However soon armies of Golden Horde have grasped ъЁхяюё=і also have placed in it the garrison. On advantage having estimated a fortress, the first Crimean khan the Hadzhi-weight in XV century has transformed it into the strengthened residence, having created a reliable refuge in struggle of khans against Golden Horde for independence.
After resettlement of the Crimean khans in new capital — Bakhchisarai, — Kyrk-Or remained a citadel of capital and a place of an imprisonment of notable captives. At various times in prison torture chambers here pined the Lithuanian ambassador Climbed, the Polish hetman Pototsky, Ivan Groznogo Vasily Grjaznoj's favourite. For three years Russian ambassadors Vasily Ajtemirov and the prince Romodanovsky have spent in hanskoj to prison. But the heartrending experiences have fallen to a Russian lot voevody, the favourite of tsar Alexey Mihajlovicha - Vasily Sheremetev. Twenty one year was spent by Sheremetev in a dungeon, four khans was replaced in this time in Bakhchisarai, however the captive has refused to buy freedom expensive to Russia by - for it the cities of Kazan and Astrakhan demanded.
From the middle of XVII century Tatars leave Kyrk-Or; there remained to live only karaimy - the small Crimean people, on belief close to Jews, therefore a city began to name since then Chufut-Kale. And karaimy have lived here even more two centuries.
After inclusion of Crimea in structure of Russia the imperial government, recognising that karaimy not Jews, has given them privileges, in particular, has allowed to appropriate it officer ranks in army - after all in the Middle Ages they were guardsmen at the Lithuanian grand dukes. Now they could live in all territory of empire.
From now on Chufut-Kale began to become empty. Inhabitants left a severe plateau and moved to Bakhchisarai, Simferopol, Evpatoria. In 1852 with Chufut-Kale last inhabitants have left.
Work on creation in Chufut-Kale the ethnographic centre karaimov is now conducted. Leaving Bujuk-Kapu (the big gate) Chufut-Kale you get to Iosafatovu a valley where it is located karaimskoe a cemetery of Balta Tijmez (an axe do not touch). Among svjayoshchennyh oaks of thousand gravestone monuments: vertical oblong plates, odnorogie and the two-horned horizontal. On them on drevneevrejyoskom language the name and year of death of the dead, sometimes an epitaph are cut.
And further the track conducts to a cave fortress of Tepe-Kermen.
In addition on the given theme:
Tepe-kermen, Kachi-kalon and Bashtanovka
Mangup and Eski-kermen
Dolina Bodrak and the Crimean observatory
Orlovka, Kacha, Andreevka, Angular, Sandy, Coastal
Kujbyshevo, Falcon and the Grand Canyon of Crimea