Mangup and Eski-kermen
Though it only one of 16 so-called "яхЁхЁэ№§" cities of Crimea, but, certainly, the most considerable - in a medieval history of the south of Europe and in a modern history of the Russian informal movements (hippie, mitkov, psychics, contactors, rolevikov).
Uplifted on some honeycombs of metres of a plateau, the area about 90 hectares, throughout thousand years was an unapproachable fortress. Local princes owned seaport and took out through it to Europe wine, apples, wheat from the most fertile valleys of Crimea.
To Get to Mangupu the Lilac (here you are waited already by local Autodzhigits) is the closest from station, but is easier and cheaper on a minibus from Bakhchisarai. Excursions from Sevastopol are popular also. From the nearest big village the Red poppy towards Mangupa over highway the amusing rocks known under a modern name the Rock of Presidents though profiles are faster monkey's and dog hang. One rock from an antiquity is called the Pregnant woman, reminding a figure of the woman with a pot-belly.
Before Mangupom on an exit in the Karalezsky valley of a beam with the Tatar village of Hodzha-fat there is a big glade and nice artificial lake. Here the parking place, a tourist shelter, cafe, shops and capital institutions with numbers is arranged. On territory of archaeological reserve Mangup it is necessary to pay for an input, and lifting very heavy so above the people have less, than below, and it conducts itself(himself) more silently.
Evlija Chelebi the Turkish traveller of the middle of a XVII-th century so has described the impressions:
"Ђчэѕ=Ёш and outside of that stronghold there are some thousand various caves at the sight of which the person stiffens in surprise. The condition of the people of all Crimea is stored in those caves in lock Mangub...
it has been created by a plan of the Allah from mountain as a fortress and who it did not see let does not say that saw and examined all fortresses on light...
If to shout in those valleys which at bottom of gorges have settled down, mountains will hoot continuously during a half an hour, as if a thunder, and the person an extreme fright and surprise ю§тр= =".
In cave cities people lived in usual houses, but for the military purposes, and also for warehouses, prisons, etc. used natural karstic cavities, levelling and deepening them. When you go on Mangupu, it is underfoot frequent "срЁрсрэш=" emptiness. The best viewing "ср°э " is over a cave which and is called the Drum-koba. Three windows supervise three valleys. Is "срыъюэ№" with which remarkable photos turn out. Because of windows a rocky ledge name the Teshkli-breaker (cape Full of holes). Presumably, at various times the treasury, prison with the chamber of tortures, together with a monastery here took places.
In an average part of cape the Acoustic cave , doing any sound unusually powerful and beautiful is cut so-called
The Basic excavation is conducted on Citadels fortresses. Even when it all the same took storm (on the sixth time!), losses have made 7 thousand janychar. The siege has lasted half a year. It was the most unsuccessful military operation for all history of Turkish empire.
From the West of dwelling of a princely family and confidants the powerful wall with nadvratnoj a tower protected. Under its protection the beautiful church in shape basils, nearby a deep well has been erected also.
Not less interesting place on Mangupe - a monastery in southern breakage.
When the Mangupsky prince Alexey most known and influential, he has died has left money for that two monks always prayed for it three times a day. Its tomb was in a church floor. They lived nearby too in a cave.
Before to get to a monastery, it is possible to pass one entertaining thingummy nicknamed archeologists not pretty well "#юяр ¦рэуѕяр". This such aperture on an edge of breakage which even a stone's throw away you will not accept for an input in Mangupsky a cave . Nevertheless, having squeezed into it, it appear over the huge vaulted hall which one party opens in breakage. At its edge it is possible to pass to a monastery. But also on the other hand the hall is long enough subway. It is natural, it is rumored that it conducts or to Sevastopol, or at least, to a gold large quantity.
The Cave city in 8 km to the south from with. Holmovka the Bakhchsarai area. The name is translated as the Old fortress, and other name - Cherkez-kermen is connected with the Circassians who were living in the country below.
Besides usual kriptov (the levelled caves), in VI century powerful walls and towers by means of the Byzantines strengthening approaches to Kherson (on a place of Sevastopol) are put up still. The fortress becomes also large shopping centre, it is besieged time and again by nomads, in particular during Antihazaria revolt in 787 of Enormous works it was necessary to cut a deep obsidional well in a rocky file. Frescos of a temple of Three horsemen are well-known: George Pobedonostsa, Feodora Stratilata and Dimitrija Solunsky behind which back the boy known as great martyr Nestor Solunsky, and also a temple of Aid donors is represented. The city, as well as many other things has been burnt in 1299 by armies of the emir of the Gold horde of Nogaja which revenged all Crimea for death of the grandson.
On the next rock ruins of a feudal castle the Kyz-sack (the Maiden tower) X - rise XI centuries.
Poseshchenie Eski-kermena paid, here offer tourists weight of entertainments, including riding. Festivals on revival of medieval winemaking are arranged.
In addition on the given theme:
Bakhchisarai, the Uspensky monastery, Chufut-kale
Tepe-kermen, Kachi-kalon and Bashtanovka
Dolina Bodrak and the Crimean observatory
Orlovka, Kacha, Andreevka, Angular, Sandy, Coastal
Kujbyshevo, Falcon and the Grand Canyon of Crimea